Citizens Alert was formed in 1965 by, "...a group of citizens concerned about the growing gap in understanding between the police of San Francisco and the people they are sworn to protect." Members included local clergy, diverse members of the surrounding communities, and prominent homophile groups and activists, including many individuals associated with the Daughters of Bilitis.
Vanguard, "...organized young people of the Tenderloin's streets-in particular those identified as hustlers and hair fairies, who exchanged sex for money and/or adopted unconventional gender roles-and the group emphasized the problems of police violence, exploitation and discrimination as core issues" (Hanhardt, 2013, 73). You can read and download the magazine of Vanguard online.
Both Citizens Alert and Vanguard were established with assistance from Glide.
ONE: The Homosexual Magazine, November 1, 1955.
Historical newspapers and periodicals provide some of the earliest sources for finding gay history. In particular, prior to and extending into the 1950's, black newspapers offered a venue for conversations about gender and sexuality that were far more sophisticated than most conversations on these topics during this time. Mainstream press historically has not covered LGBTQ+ issues comprehensively, and when they are covered at all, the representation is often unreliable or biased. This is just one reason why we must work harder to ensure that as a culture, we preserve these voices from the margins.